Essay on Economics

 

essay on economics

Up: Economics Network > Writing for Economics Essay writing. The idea of setting essays is to offer you the chance to make a longer, more complex argument. Nonetheless, in the model we recommend, the fundamentals remain the same. Essay # Subject Matter of Economics. Broadly speaking, the formulation of a definition is a precise procedure of explaining the subject matter. The majority of economic thinkers from Adam Smith to Pigou have defined the subject matter of economics as the study of the causes of material welfare or as the science of wealth. May 17,  · Economics Example Essays. The example essays below were written by our expert writers, as a learning aid to help you with your arlubersscam.ml you are looking for help with your essay then we offer a comprehensive writing service provided by fully qualified academics in your field of study.


Macro Economic Essays | Economics Help


The idea of setting essays is to offer you the chance to make a longer, more complex argument. Nonetheless, essay on economics, in the model we recommend, the fundamentals remain the same. If you read through academic writing, you will find this structure over and over. The same is true for professional writing. There essay on economics of course other structures, however this one always works and makes you sound concise and clear. An essay has conventional sections that it is wise to follow.

These are an introduction, main body and a conclusion. The 'LSE' essay structure can be described as 'say what you're going to say introsay it in detail main bodysay what you've said conclusion ', essay on economics. Although this may appear repetitive, it offers the reader great clarity. Statement about the context of the question - explain why the question in important either in the 'real' world or for the discipline of economics.

Summarise your argument in support of this answer - this summary should match the order of your paragraphs. Decide on the most logical order of your paragraphs - this might be importance, chronology or causation, essay on economics, but the basic flow should be simple and clear.

Start each paragraph with a sentence that clearly addresses the question itself - this will be your thesis for essay on economics paragraph and if a reader only read these opening sentences, they should make sense one after the other and provide a summary of your argument.

Follow the opening 'topic' sentence with your reasoning and evidence for why this opening statement is valid. Be specific, not general. The more detail you can bring in, the more expert you will sound and the more persuasive your argument will be, essay on economics.

Conclusion Summarise your argument again - as you did in the intro different words though! So what? Below you'll find two essays written by students last year. Bearing the above in mind, decide which one makes the clearer argument and which, therefore, got the higher mark. In the yearthere were auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile telephones in several European countries.

These auctions generated very different amount of revenue in different countries, essay on economics. How can this be explained? Auction theory as a very useful brunch of game theory is of the great interest of modern economists. Among other reasons of its popularity stands direct importance of its ideas to modern businesses and governments.

Nowadays any business sector is more or less competitive, which requires all it's participants to be dynamic and creative. Modernization and expansion is a vital part of modern business world. Governments, as owners of resources that allow businesses to expand and modernize, are always ready to sell those resources as it will eventually help businesses and certainly bring revenues.

The best way for government to sell available resources is to declare an auction. That's where auction theory comes essay on economics play. Modern auction theory is essay on economics very powerful tool for designing auctions of very profitable kind. Proper auction design will rise maximum amount of money for the government and provide companies with resources they need, essay on economics. However actions that maximize profits for the government have a direct influence also on the life of the citizens, as Dixit puts it: " So, auctions held by government, and to be more specific properly designed actions directly influence the life of modern country.

In this essay I would like to make a kind of short review of auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile phones held in Europe in year The peculiarity of these auctions lies in the fact that revenues that were generated by European governments are different as a result of differently designed actions they held.

This fact allows as to trace features of the auctions that were successful and resulted in relatively high revenues for the government. There were 6 European countries to held spectrum right auctions in Let's start with United Kingdom as it was the first country to hold such kind of auctions.

Strategy that United Kingdom had chosen was selling 5 licenses during classical ascending auction, essay on economics. Auction resulted in huge revenues: euros per capita.

Firstly it should be said that auctions as any normal business activity should be competitive in order to be essay on economics. UK spectrum auction was relatively competitive attracting 13 participants. There are several reasons why this action attracted so many participants, essay on economics.

Firstly, UK was the first country in the world to hold spectrum rights auction. Participants were not completely aware of the usefulness of 3G cell phones, but were eager to get competitive advantage in the new generation mobile communication technology. Secondly, UK sold 5 licenses to the market with 4 major phone operators, essay on economics. This fact attracted new entrants, essay on economics, since at least one of the licenses can be potentially won essay on economics new entrants to the market.

Both this facts generated highly competitive auction environment essay on economics limited possible collusions. Result of the auction was a huge success for UK government.

The next country to run spectrum rights auction in was Netherlands. This auction raised euros per capita. Reason of such flop, essay on economics, comparing to the British result was lack of competition. When auction were run there were 5 major phone operators for 5 licenses to be sold.

Few entrants decided to participate in the auction, since everybody was sure that 5 licenses will be distributed among market leaders, essay on economics. Another factor that made things even worse was the fact that that was an ascending auction. In this case with few participants essay on economics is a risk of collusion among market leaders.

Netherlands would have generated much more money if they would some how encourage competition and change the action design in such a way that it would be possible for participants other than market leaders to place bids independently of each other to reduce collusion sealed bid.

Italy generated euros per capita and attracted 6 participants. Italy intentionally reduced amount of participants by imposing a requirements that participant of the auction must satisfy. Such situation combined with the fact that Italian auction was ascending could result in possible collusions among competitors. As a result wrong auction design resulted in low revenues. Swiss auction was a real flop. They generated only 20 euros per capita.

Here amount of participants was also artificially limited by allowing participants to join into the groups. And the price that government accepts was also reduced for some reason, essay on economics.

Number of participants was sufficient to essay on economics profitable auction, but combination essay on economics officially permitted collusions and low reserve price resulted in absolutely insufficient revenues, essay on economics. German and Austrian auctions were similar. Number of participants in both countries' auctions was low, which means that there were risks of collusion.

Both countries sold licenses in blocks, allowing "number of winners be determined by bidders". Additionally Austrian government set a very low reserve price.

Germany and Austria generated and euros per capita in revenue respectively. Germany designed auction in such a way that bids of two main market players were rationalized in a way that it resulted in high revenues. Generally, essay on economics, the main difference in revenues generated from spectrum rights auctions can be explained by the difference in chosen auction design.

Different auction design results in different amounts of money in revenues. Countries that tried to facilitate competitive bidding and limited the possibilities of collusion enjoyed high revenues. Klemperer say that what really matters in auction design is "robustness against collusion and attractiveness to entry". Exactly the combination or lack of one of this factors resulted in the difference in the revenues generated by European countries.

Any country that wants to increase revenues from auction must try to facilitate the competition among bidders by trying to make participation in auction as attractive as possible and eliminating any barriers for participation. There should be no cooperation between participants, as it will result in lower bids and as a consequence in low revenues. Countries should not choose auction design that facilitates collusion, as ascending auction in our case.

Of course there are several other reasons for difference in revenues, among them there is a fact that UK as a country that run the first spectrum rights auction in the world, might have enjoyed high revenues simply because participants were new to the licenses and had no idea of their true value.

Overall economic situations in the counties as well as political might also result in differences in revenues. But the main reason for difference in profitability of the spectrum licenses auctions is difference in auction designs which were effective in some countries and not in the others.

In the yearEuropean auctions of 3G mobile telecommunication licenses raised over billion euros in government revenues. There was a big differential between revenues raised in each country with United Kingdom leading at euros per capita essay on economics Switzerland coming in last at 20 euros per capita.

The reasons for this big discrepancy in revenues is likely due to poor auction designs and the sequence in which the auctions took place. When it comes to auction design, the two crucial components are attracting entry and preventing collusion.

Ascending auctions encourage bidders to act collusively and deter weaker potential bidders as they know that the stronger bidder will always out bid him. On the other hand, first-price sealed-bid auctions act in the opposite direction from ascending auctions. It does not give bidders a chance to collude and encourages weaker bidders to participate. However, the disadvantage of using a sealed-bid auction is that it is more likely to lead to inefficient results than an ascending auction.

The reason for this is that sometimes bidders with a lower value may beat opponents with a higher value. Hence, there is no perfect auction design and they must be customized to suit different environments and targets.

United Kingdom was the first to hold the auctions and they are a good example of how a well-planned auction design and good marketing strategies can lead to a favourable outcome, essay on economics. As there were five licenses and 4 incumbents, they had an ascending auction, essay on economics. To prevent collusion, each license could not be shared and each bidder was allowed no more than one license. Also, the fact that at least one license was available to new entrants lead to fierce competition from nine new entrants.

To top it all off, UK had a solid marketing strategy which was planned over three years -

 

How to Write a Good Economics Essay: 14 Steps (with Pictures)

 

essay on economics

 

will discover a few things about writing economics. First, the discourse is often mathematical, with lots of formulas, lemmas, and proofs. Second, writing styles vary widely. Some authors are very dry and technical; a few are rather eloquent. You don’t have to be a . May 16,  · Economics Essays. The essays below were written by students to help you with your own studies. If you are looking for help with your essay then we offer a comprehensive writing service provided by fully qualified academics in your field of study. Essay # Subject Matter of Economics. Broadly speaking, the formulation of a definition is a precise procedure of explaining the subject matter. The majority of economic thinkers from Adam Smith to Pigou have defined the subject matter of economics as the study of the causes of material welfare or as the science of wealth.